Twice during the last twenty years I had occasion to travel extensively over the Southern States, and to be come acquainted with their condition. In 1865, a few months after the close of the civil war, I visited all of them, except Texas and Florida, and last winter all of them, except Mississippi. Each time Icame into contact with a great many persons of all shades of social position and of political Opinion. I improved my Opportunities of inquiry and observation to the best of my ability. My object was, not to verify the correctness of preconceived notions, but to gain, by impartial investigation, a true View of things. Of the View thus obtained these pages are to give a brief and plain account.