The orthography of Arabic words, whether em ployed in the Arabic, the Persian, the Turkish, or any other Muslim language, has never admitted or required modification, from the pre-islamic days downwards. The spelling of the Persian has also been unalterably fixed for the last thousand years or so; with the addition that, unlike Arabic words, which permit no modification, the long vowels in Persian vocables may be rejected for the sake of metre, and interchanged to a certain extent for the sake of rhyme. The former privilege is utilized in Persian words by Ottoman poets; the latter is used by Persians only. The spelling of Turkish words by Ottomans, and by their Eastern cousins, has not this absolute fixity; more especially as regards the use of vowel-letters. These, which are not then always long, as they are in Arabic and Persian, are more or less Optional, being sometimes inserted, and some times omitted, even by the same writer; and especially in poetry, for the sake of metre.