And here is the incomprehensible thing! No one save a madman would think of doing violence to a church because it has the Madonna for a guardian. The canvas is not under valued because it lives and speaks through the eyes and lips of N otre Dame. The devotees who invoke her by these familiar and tender titles do not arouse our anger, though they may be estranged from our sympathy. We know why Notre Dame of Lourdes appeals to the enthusiasm, piety and love of the many, but why does she stir the resentments, hostility and incredulousness of the few? Is she here, as often in other aspects, a touchstone, a test, a measure of personal character? Was Zola a better or a worse man because he heaped ribaldry and ridicule on the marvels of her power and intercession done at Lourdes?