As one commodity will illustrate this feature as well as another, we will use the milling in transit of wheat for the purpose of this example. Minneapolis, owing to its geographical location and natural advantage as to water power, early became a commercial and transportation center. Having the most powerful factors conducive to the development of any and all industry and being the gateway to the great wheat fields of the northwest, nothing seems more natural than that it should become a center for the marketing and milling of the great quantities of grain, principally wheat, grown in that section of the country. Many competitive roads lead to and from that center or primary market in all directions and, by all the laws of cause and efiect, rates were made to and from that gateway. These rates established the level of through transportation charges from points of production in the West tributary to Min neapolis to points of consumption in the East. This level of rates, established by force of competitive and commer cial conditions through such a large market center, can not be remuneratively maintained with respect to interior local points, where the conditions are entirely dissimilar. The rates, however, though they may be on a higher basis than those applicable to the market centers, are reasonable and not unduly discriminatory in themselves.