This translation, therefore, aims to be faithful to both Em glish and Polish. The needless iterations which are legit 'mate in Polish have been dropped as illegitimate in English. Thus a large number of ands, buts, and meanwhiles have been weeded out, as well as all such phrases as so say ing, or with these words, which retard the reader without enlightening him. He began to do so and so has been altered into He did so and so. More important still, Pol ish idioms and locutions, meaningless to English ears, have been rendered into the nearest possible equivalents with tho same object of aiding the reader, and the Latin terms have been carefully translated in the text itself.