This International Labour Law Handbook from A to Z aims to give a comprehensive overview of the development and current status of labour law and industrial relations issues, including globalization and international labour standards. In this Handbook there are cross-references to international labour standards and European Union directives, resolutions and regulations. In this respect, the reader will notice that some of the definitions from the public domain are taken from legislative and specialized texts dealing with international standards and institutions in general. This International Labour Law Handbook from A to Z is in no way intended to offer an exhaustive and detailed treatment of all labour law and industrial relations issues, rather a reference tool on selected issues found in international instruments and/or social institutions. With this objective in mind, and to make the significant provisions of labour law and industrial relations more understandable to a wider audience, certain liberties have been taken by the authors when reformulating and, in several cases, simplifying the terminology involved. The International Labour Law Handbook should not be used or regarded as an authoritative text on individual international labour standards or on European Union labour law, but as an easy reference work for practitioners and scholars in the field of comparative labour law and industrial relations. Prof. Gianni ARRIGO is Professor of Labour Law at the University of Bari. He has written extensively on International and European Union Labour Law, industrial relations, workers' participation and many other subjects dealing with the world of work. He is President of EIDOS (Rome). He is member of editorial boards of specialized journals in labour law and industrial relations. He is a consultant with the ILO, the EC and several other European and Italian organisations. Prof. Giuseppe CASALE is the Deputy Director of the Intentional Training Centre of the ILO and Director of the Turin School of Development. He is the Secretary General of the International Society for Labour and Social Security Law (ISLSSL). Visiting Professor at the Cà Foscari University of Venice. He has many publications on international and comparative labour law, industrial relations, employment relationship, labour administration and labour inspection.